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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE BENJ '° E WHEELER ' '«■■■•■■« 

THOMAS FORSYTH HUNT, Dean and Director 
BERKELEY H. E. VAN NORMAN, Vice-Director and Dean 

University Farm School 

CIRCULAR No. 204 
August, 1918 

HANDBOOK OF PLANT DISEASE 
AND PEST CONTROL 

By RALPH E. SMITH, E. O. ESSIG, and GEO. P. GRAY 



ALFALFA 

Bust, Leaf Spot. — Not often serious or persistent. Worst on dry 
soil or weak plants. Usually disappears after a cutting and good 
irrigation. The hay is valuable for orchard mulch if too rusty for 
feed. 

Crown Gall, Stem Rot. — When stand becomes too poor, plow and 
put into some other crop for a few years. Relevel if there are any 
low spots. 

Caterpillar. — Cutting as soon as the caterpillar appears in injur- 
ious numbers will save much of the crop. 

Cutworms, Army Worms, Grasshoppers. — See "General Subjects." 

ALMOND 

Shot Hole, Rust. — Spray with lime-sulfur 1-10 just as buds are 
swelling. 

Armillaria, Crown Gall, Sour Sap. — See "General Subjects." 

California Peach-borer, Peach Twig-borer. — See "Peach." 

Red-humped Caterpillar. — See "Prune." 

Red Spider. — Apply dry sulfur, sulfur paste, home-made wettable 
sulfur sprays (Formula 13 or 14), or lime-sulfur 1-50, as soon as 
mites appear and as often as necessary throughout the summer and 
fall. 

San Jose Scale. — See "Apple." 

Combined Spraying 
The lime-sulfur spraying when the buds are swelling will control 
shot-hole fungus and twig borer and also help to destroy San Jose 
or other scales and red spider. 



APPLE 

Blight. — See "Pear." . Remove all worthless apple trees near 
orchards of pear or apple. 

Scab. — Spray with Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9), or lime-sulfur 
1-20, just before blossoms open. Again with lime-sulfur 1-35 when 
petals are falling. 

Mildew. — Cut out mildewed twigs as thoroughly as possible. Use 
lime-sulfur for scab spraying or if scab is not serious use sulfur paste, 
16 pounds to 200 gallons of water (or home-made wettable sulfur 
spray, Formula 13 or 14) when petals are falling. Later spraying for 
mildew may be made with the same material. Sulfur sprays cause 
injury to apple trees in some sections. 

Codling Moth. — Spray with lead arsenate, 2 pounds to 50 gallons 
of water (Formula 1 or 2) as soon as petals begin to fall and repeat 
in three or four weeks. In some cases it is necessary to give a third 
application four weeks after the second. 

Bed-humped Caterpillar. — See "Prune." 

Tent Caterpillars, Canker Worms. — See "General Subjects." 

Green and Bosy Apple Aphis. — Spray with oil emulsion (Formula 
23), miscible oil, or tobacco extract (Formula 27). The critical time 
for application is just as the leaf buds are opening, to kill the young 
which are at that time hatching from the eggs. 

Woolly Apple Aphis. — Spray with oil emulsion (Formula 23) or 
miscible oil during winter months. For root form, expose crown of 
roots and pour in a quantity of the above spray mixture and re-cover 
the roots. Nicotine sulfate (Formula 27) is also effective, or refuse 
tobacco may be buried in the soil over the main roots during the rainy 
season. 

San Jose Scale. — Spray with lime-sulfur 1-10 during winter 
months when tree is dormant. 

Tussock Moth. — Remove egg masses during winter months. Jar 
off caterpillars and prevent their ascent of tree by cotton or tanglefoot 
bands. 

Flat-headed Apple Tree Borer. — Whitewash to prevent sunburn. 
Dig out borers. Prevent injury or wounds to the tree. The insect 
usually enters through dead areas. 

Combined Spraying 

1. For serious infestations of scale, for removal of moss, and for 
general clean-up, lime-sulfur 1-10 or crude oil spray (Formula 18) 
during the winter. 



2. For green, rosy, and woolly aphis, use oil emulsion (Formula 
23) or miscible oils just as leaf buds are opening. If woolly aphis is 
not abundant but where rosy or green aphis and scab are serious pests, 
use at this time lime-sulfur 1-20, to which is added one pound of 40 
per cent nicotine sulfate to each 200 gallons of spray. The lime-sulfur 
at this time may also help to control a slight infestatioa of San Jose 
scale. Combinations of oil sprays for woolly aphis, with lime-sulfur 
or Bordeaux for scab, are not considered advisable. The soluble sulfur 
preparations (compounds with soda) may be mixed with the oil 
sprays and could probably be adopted for use in the control of scab, 
mildew and woolly aphis by determining a safe strength. 

3. For codling moth and scab, use 8 pounds of basic lead arsenate 
in 200 gallons of 1-35 lime-sulfur, when petals are falling. For 
mildew add 16 pounds of sulfur paste to each 200 gallons. If rosy or 
green aphis appears, 1 pound of 40 per cent nicotine sulfate may also 
be added. 

4. For codling moth and late scab infection, repeat 3, following 
also the recommendations for aphis and mildew if these pests need 
attention. 

In large apple-growing regions obtain advice of local horticultural 
authorities as to modifications in above. 



APRICOT 

Black Heart. — Cut off affected branches back to main trunk as 
soon as the wilting is seen. Destroy badly affected young trees 
entirely. Avoid heavy irrigation in affected orchards. 

Brown Rot, Blossom Blight, Gumming Twig Blight, Green Rot, 
Shot Hole. — Destroy mummies in fall. Spray with lime-sulfur 1-10 
as buds are swelling and again when first blossoms are open. If rainy 
while " jackets" are on, spray with lime-sulfur 1-30. For the control 
of brown rot of the fruit, summer spraying with sulfur paste or the 
so-called self -boiled lime-sulfur is often recommended. In California 
such practice has resulted quite frequently in injury to the trees and 
must therefore be tried with caution. The injury consists in a yellow- 
ing of the foliage, stunting of the fruit, disfigurement by sediment on 
the fruit, and failure of the trees to bloom the following season. 

Bud Blight. — Spray with lime-sulfur 1-8, between November 15 
and December 15. 

Armillaria, Crown Gall, Sour Sap. — See "General Subjects." 

Black Scale, Brown Apricot Scale. — Spray during November or 
December with oil emulsion (Formula 18 or 23) or miscible oil spray. 



Shot Hole Borers or Bark Beetles. — Remove and burn all infested 
portions. 

California Peach-borer, Peach Twig-borer. — See "Peach." 
Red-humped Caterpillar. — See "Prune." 

Combined Spraying 
The lime-sulfur treatment just as buds are opening as recom- 
mended for fungous diseases will also control twig-borer and give the 
trees a general clean-up. 

ASPARAGUS 

Bust. — Keep down volunteer growth. Dust tops with sulfur as 
soon as they are well expanded. Repeat in four weeks. 

Beetle. — Cut down all seedlings except a few left for trap crop. 
In the spring after beetles have collected on these and deposited eggs, 
cut down and burn. Spray young seedlings with lead arsenate, 1 
pound to 16 gallons of water, or with 40 per cent nicotine sulfate 
1 gallon, whale oil soap 4 pounds, and water 20 gallons. Burn and 
eliminate all possible sheltering plants during winter. 

Centipede or Symphyla. — Flooding in spring before cultivation 
has given good results in some places. Rotation of crops may be 
necessary for a few years. 

BARLEY 

(See Grain.) 

BEAN 

Anthracnose. — Very rare and unimportant in California. 

Mildew, Rust. — Dust with sulfur at first appearance. 

Wilt, Stem Rot, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium. — Prepare soil very thor- 
oughly. Plant as late as possible, avoiding cold or wet weather. Save 
seed from strong, well-matured plants. 

Nematode. — See "General Subjects." Black Eyes and Teparys 
are more resistant than other beans but sometimes badly affected. 

Aphis, Thrips. — No practical field control. Nicotine sprays give 
temporary results if thoroughly applied, but they are usually too 
expensive for field work. Keep plants as vigorous as possible. 

Red Spider. — If possible, keep beans thoroughly irrigated, culti- 
vated and in good healthy conditon. Begin sulfuring as soon as 
spiders appear and continue throughout summer, using dry sulfur. 

Weevil. — Fumigate beans in storage with carbon bisulfide 10 to 30 
pounds to a thousand cubic feet of air space, the amount depending 
upon the tightness of the room or bin. 



BEET 

Curly Top (Blight). — Plant as early in season as soil can be prop- 
erly prepared and good germination and growth obtained. This varies 
in different districts from December 1 to March 1, according to tem- 
perature and rainfall. Finish thinning before hot weather. Irrigate 
early, and often enough to prevent wilting during spring and sum- 
mer. The disease need not be feared unless the insect Eutettix tenella 
is abundant. 

Seedling Root Rot. — Replant if stand is too thin. 

Rust, Leaf Spot. — No treatment needed. 

Nematode. — See "General Sub jets." The beet is attacked by 
two species, the garden nematode, Heterodera radicicola, which attacks 
a great variety of plants, and the beet nematode, H. schachtii, which 
is a pest only on the sugar beet. This does not produce large galls as 
with the former species. 

Army worms, Cutworms, Grasshoppers. — See "General Subjects." 

Wireworms. — Plow in fall to destroy pupae. Plant early and prac- 
tice clean culture. Trap adults by means of piles of straw and burn 
in late fall or winter. 

BUSH FRUITS 

(Blackberry, Loganberry, Easpberry) 

Leaf Spot, Rust, Cane Blight. — Cut out and burn all affected parts 
injthe fall. Spray with lime-sulfur 1-10 or Bordeaux mixture during 
the dormant season. Give good irrigation and cultivation. Renew 
old plantings. 

Fruit Mold. — Avoid mixing moldy berries with good ones. 

Borers. — Cut out dead canes and burn during winter months. 

Scales. — Spray during winter with oil emulsion (Formula 23) or 
miscible oil. 

CABBAGE 

Aphis. — Spray repeatedly with oil emulsion (Formula 23) or nico- 
tine (Formula 27). 

Cabbage Worm. — Spray repeatedly up to picking time with nico- 
tine sulfate 40 per cent, 1 pound to 100 gallons of water, or spray 
until two or three weeks before harvesting with lead arsenate, 2 
pounds to 50 gallons of water in which 4 pounds of hard laundry soap 
has been dissolved. 

Root Maggot. — Place tarred paper shields around bases of plants 
or spray repeatedly with carbolic-acid emulsion (Formula 26). Plow 
and work ground thoroughly in spring to destroy pupae. 



CELERY 

Blight. — Spray with Bordeaux (Formula 9), especially in moist 
weather, commencing- in seed bed. 

Celery Caterpillar. — Hand-pick or spray with lead arsenate. 
Aphis. — Spray with nicotine (Formula 27). 

CHERRY 

Gummosis, Die-hack. — See "General Subjects." Usually due to 
shallow soil or too much water. Some forms of gummosis may be 
parasitic. Cut out affected branches below diseased parts or cut out 
affected areas of bark. Sterilize as in Pear Blight. See also ' ' Wound 
Treatment. ' ' 

Aphis. — Spray as buds are opening with oil emulsion (Formula 
23), nicotine (Formula 27), or miscible oil. 

Cherry Slug. — Spray with arsenate of lead or dust with sulfur, 
kaolin, lime or fine road dust. 

California Peach-borer. — See "Peach." 

Tent Caterpillars. — See "General Subjects." 

Cankermorms. — See "General Subjects." 

Hed-humped Caterpillar. — See "Prune." 

CHRYSANTHEMUM 

Rust. — Fertilize and irrigate freely to produce strong, vigorous 
plants. 

Aphis. — Spray with nicotine (Formula 27). Cut out and burn 
infested plants as soon as insects appear. 

Leaf Miner. — Spray with nicotine sulfate 40 per cent solution, 1 
pound to 100 gallons of water. 

Gall Fly. — Keep plants trimmed in spring. Spray with nicotine 
sulfate 40 per cent, 1 pound to 100 gallons of water when eggs appear 
on tips of branches in spring and summer. 

CITRUS 

(Grape Fruit, Lemon, Orange) 

Damping-off, Armillaria Roof Rot. — See ' ' General Subjects. ' ' 
Gummosis. — Cut out all affected bark as soon as discovered and 
treat wounds with Bordeaux paste (Formula 10). Do not allow water 
to stand about base of trees. In planting, keep point of budding well 
above ground and never allow the soil to pile up around the trunk. 
For heavy soil, use trees high-budded on sour-orange root. 

Scaly Bark. — Cut out all discolored bark and surface wood when 
the outbreak first appears. Cover wounds with Bordeaux paste 



(Formula 10). Cut off badly affected branches. Watch all the trees 
very closely in groves where the disease is present and eradicate the 
disease at its first appearance. 

Brown Rot, Cottony Rot. — When disease is prevalent spray lower 
branches and ground beneath with Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9). 
Do not allow boxes of fruit to stand over night in orchard. Use blue- 
stone in wash water (Formula 12), maintaining constant strength of 
1% pounds to 1000 gallons. Grade out very carefully all orchard- 
infected fruit before storing. 

Blue Mold, Green Mold. — Avoid bruising in picking and handling 
fruit. 

Mottled Leaf. — Add as much organic matter to soil as possible in 
form of green-manure crops, bean or barley straw, and manure. See 
that water penetrates to subsoil and keeps it uniformly moist. See 
"General Subjects." 

Scales. — Fumigate with hydrocyanic-acid gas. 

Mealy Bug. — Fumigate with hydrocyanic-acid gas or spray repeat- 
edly with oil emulsion (Formula 20), crude carbolic acid emulsion 
(Formula 26), or water under high pressure. 

Red Spider. — Dust with sulfur or spray with home-made wettable 
sulfur sprays (Formula 14), sulfur paste 10 pounds to 100 gallons 
of water, or lime-sulfur 1-50. 

Aphis. — Use Nicotine Spray (Formula 27). 

CORN 

Smut. — Destroy diseased parts as soon as discovered. Seed treat- 
ment not effective. 

Ear Mold. — Sometimes bad on late corn in moist soil. Use early 
varieties. Harvest and cure as early as possible. Avoid over-irriga- 
tion. 

Earworm, — Clean up and burn refuse in field. Plow in fall or 
early spring to kill pupae. Dusting silk of ears with powdered 
arsenate of lead affords some relief. 

Cutworms, Armyworms, Grasshoppers. — See "General Subjects." 

Granary Weevil, Rice Weevil, Angoumois Grain Moth. — See 
"Grain." 

COTTON 

Corn Earworm. — See "Corn." 

Red Spider. — Dust with sulfur or spray with sulfur paste or home- 
made wettable sulfur sprays (Formula 13 or 14). 



CUCUMBER 

Mildew. — Dust with sulfur at first appearance. 

Nematode. — See "General Subjects." 

Beetles. — Spray with lead arsenate, 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. 

Aphis. — See "Melon. 



7 7 



CURRANT, GOOSEBERRY 

Mildew. — Dust with sulfur at first appearance. 

Borers. — Cut out and burn infested twigs during winter. 

Scale. — Spray with lime-sulfur 1-10, or oil emulsion (Formula 23) 
during the winter. 

Red Spider. — Dust with sulfur or spray with sulfur paste 
(Formula 13), 10 pounds to 100 gallons, as spiders appear. 

DAHLIA 

Mildew. — See ' ' Currant. ' ' 

Aphis, Thrips, White Fly. — Spray with 40 per cent nicotine sul- 
fate, 1 pound to 200 gallons of water. 

Diabrotioa. — Hand pick. Spray repeatedly with lead arsenate, 3 
pounds to 50 gallons of water. 

GRAIN 

(Barley, Oats, Wheat) 

Bust. — No remedy. Some varieties are more resistant than others. 

Smut. — Seed grain should be carefully cleaned of smut balls, weed 
seeds and small cracked and inferior grains before treating. The smut 
balls in wheat and smut masses in barley may be cleaned out in fan- 
ning mills or floated out in water and skimmed. Place the cleaned 
seed in half -filled sacks tied at the end. Immerse these sacks for three 
or four minutes in a bluestone solution made by dissolving 1 pound 
of bluestone in 5 gallons of water (Formula 11). Drain the sacks 
until dripping no longer occurs, then dip them for three minutes in 
milk of lime made by slaking 1 pound of quicklime in 10 gallons of 
water. The lime prevents injury to the germ from the bluestone. If 
quicklime cannot be secured, air-slacked lime, 1 pound to 8 gallons 
of water, may be used. After thus treating, the grain should be spread 
out to dry, after which it may be planted or stored. 

Oats are especially sensitive to bluestone and in this case it is 
better to use a solution of formaldehyde, 1 pound to 40 gallons of 
water, for ten minutes, after which no lime dip is needed. Barley is 
more sensitive than wheat and should always be lime-dipped after 
treatment with bluestone. 



9 

Army worms, Cutworms, Grasshoppers. — See " General Subjects." 
Granary Weevil, Bice Weevil, Angoumois Moth. — Fumigate in 

storage with carbon bisulfide, 10 to 30 pounds per thousand cubic feet 

of air space. 

GRAPE 

Mildew. — Dust thoroughly with sulfur at first appearance. Repeat 
if necessary. 

Black Knot. — May be treated like Crown Gall (see "General Sub- 
jects") with some success. Not usually very injurious. 

Little Leaf, Apoplexy, Obscure Diseases. — See "Physiological Dis- 
eases" under "General Subjects." 

Leaf Hopper. — Spray with the following before insects can fly: 
40 per cent nicotine sulfate 1 pound, liquid soap % gallon (hard 
soap 2 pounds), water 200 gallons. Clean weeds and refuse from 
around fences. Practice clean culture during winter. 

Army worms, Cutworms, Grasshoppers. — See "General Subjects." 

California Grape Boot Worm, Flea Beetles. — Cultivate thoroughly 
close to vines during summer and winter. As soon as bettles first 
appear in the spring spray with arsenate of lead, 6 pounds to 100 
gallons of water. 

Bhylloxera. — Use resistant root-stocks. 

HOLLYHOCK 

Bust. — Fertilize and water freely to stimulate vigorous growth. 
Caterpillar. — Spray with 40 per cent nicotine sulfate 1 pound to 
100 gallons of water. 

MELON 

Wilt. — Plant on fresh soil. Melons cannot be grown for several 
years on infected ground. 

Nematode. — See "General Subjects." 

Aphis. — Destroy infested plants as soon as insects appear. 

Flea Beetles. — Spray with Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9) as a 
repellant. 

NURSERY STOCK 

Failure to Grow after Planting in Orchard. — Very rarely due to 
specific disease. Usually caused by freezing, drying, or water-soaking 
of trees before or after planting, planting too deep, cold, wet or hot 
weather after planting, or some other condition unfavorable to growth. 
Buy of the nearest reputable nursery. Pay for good trees and see 
that they are handled and planted carefully. Replant all that do not 
grow well the first season. 



10 

Nematode, Crown Gall. — Very carefully avoid planting affected 
trees. The clean-appearing trees in a lot having a large percentage 
of infection are of doubtful value. 

Deciduous. — For borers and other insects, fumigate with hydro- 
cyanic-acid gas. Rejecting infested stock is the only safe procedure. 

Citrus. — For scale insects, defoliate and fumigate with hydro- 
cyanic-acid gas. Rejecting infested stock is the only safe procedure. 

OAT 

(See Grain) 

OLIVE 

Die-hack {Exanthema). — Cut out affected branches. Add humus 
to soil by green-manure crops, mulch or manure. Secure uniform soil 
moisture and good drainage. Replace olives with plums, peaches or 
some other crop where die-back is very bad. See "Physiological Dis- 
eases" under "General Subjects." 

Knot (Tuberculosis). — Cut out at first appearance. Disinfect as 
in Pear Blight. 

Dry Rot, Bitter Pit. — See "Physiological Diseases" under "Gen- 
eral Subjects." No effective treatment known except good general 
care. 

Armillaria. — See "General Subjects." 

Black Scale. — Spray with oil emulsion (Formula 22) or miscible 
oil during winter months. 

Bark Beetle. — Cut out and burn infested branches. 

ONION 

Mildew. — Not successfully controlled in wet seasons. Bordeaux 
mixture found useful in some cases. 

Thrips. — Practice clean culture. Spray with 40 per cent nicotine 
sulfate, 1 pound to 200 gallons of water. 

Maggots. — Leave no decayed onions in field during winter. Culti- 
vate thoroughly. 

Army worms, Cutworms. — See ' ' General Subjects. ' ' 

PEA 

Mildew, Blight. — Dust with sulfur at first appearance. Repeat if 
necessary. 

Aphis. — Repeated applications of 40 per cent nicotine sulfate 
(Formula 27). Field control is difficult and usually too expensive. 
Tobacco dust may be tried. 

Weevil.— See "Bean." 

Cutworms, Armyworms. — See "General Subjects." 



11 



PEACH 

Armillaria, Crown Gall, Nematode.— See "General Subjects." 

Little Leaf. — See "Physiological Diseases" under "General Sub- 
jects. ' ' 

Blight, Curl Leaf. — Spray with Bordeaux (Formula 9), or lime- 
sulfur 1-10, between November 15 and December 15. Repeat with 
lime-sulfur when buds first start to swell. 

Brown Rot. — See "Apricot." 

California Peach-borer. — Dig out borers thoroughly in the fall and 
apply a thick coating of hot Grade C or D hard asphaltum. 

Peach Twig-borer. — Spray with lime-sulfur 1-10 in spring just 
as buds are swelling. 

Pear Thrips.—See "Pear." 

San Jose Scale. — See "Apple." 

Tent Caterpillars. — See "General Subjects." 

Cankerworms. — See "General Subjects." 

Red Spider. — See "Almond." 

Combined Spraying 

Two applications of lime-sulfur as recommended above will control 
all the usual diseases and pests of the peach tree in California which 
can be reached by any spray treatment. 

PEAR 

Black Leaf. — See "Sour Sap" under "General Subjects." 

Blight. — Cut out all affected parts very thoroughly. Work 
especially on "hold-over" in large limbs, trunks and roots during 
the winter. Disinfect freely with corrosive sublimate 1-1000. Keep 
off all suckers and spurs from root and body. In new plantings in 
blight regions, top-work Bartlett and other susceptible varieties upon 
Surprise or other fairly immune varieties on Japanese root. 

Scab. — Spray with lime-sulfur 1-12 or Bordeaux (Formula 9) 
just as leaf buds are opening. Repeat when first blossoms are open. 

Codling Moth.— See "Apple." 

Slug.— See "Cherry." 

Pear Thrips. — Spray as soon as insects appear with oil emulsion 
(Formula 24) or miscible oil, to which may be added 1 part of 40 
per cent nicotine sulfate to every 2000 parts of the spray mixture. 

Blister Mite. — Spray with lime-sulfur, 1-10, as cluster buds are 
opening. 

Red-humped Caterpillar.- — See "Prune." 



12 

Root Aphis. — Use Japanese root. Eliminate young, stunted trees 
and replant with healthy' ones. Expose roots and pour in quantity 
of oil emulsion or miscible oil spray (Formula 23). 

Green Apple Aphis. — See "Apple." 

Combined Spraying 

1. When scale of any kind is abundant and for moss and general 
clean-up, winter spray with lime-sulfur 1-10, crude oil emulsion 
(Formula 18), or miscible oil. 

2. For scab and thrip use Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9) or lime- 
sulfur 1-10 as cluster buds are opening, adding an extra 10 pounds 
of lime and 1 pound of 40 per cent nicotine sulfate to each 200 gallons 
of spray. Oil sprays cannot be mixed with lime-sulfur or Bordeaux 
for this purpose. 

3. For scab and thrip, repeat 2 when first blossoms are about to 
open. 

4. For codling moth and late scab infection, spray when petals 
are falling with 8 pounds of lead arsenate in 200 gallons of 1-30 
lime-sulfur or 200 gallons of Bordeaux mixture. 

PLUM, PRUNE 

Armillaria, Crown Gall, Soar Sap. — See "General Subjects." 
Brown Rot. — Not often serious. See "Apricot." 
Tent Caterpillars, Cankerworms. — See "General Subjects." 
Red Spider. — See "Almond." 
San Jose Scale. — See "Apple." 
Pear Thrips. — See "Pear." 

Red-humped Caterpillar. — Hand-pick young colonies and spray 
trees with basic lead arsenate, 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. 
Brown Apricot Scale. — See "Apricot." 
Black Scale. — See "Apricot." 
California Peach-borer. — See "Peach." 
Peach Twig-borer. — See "Peach." 
Flat-headed Apple-tree Borer. — See "Apple." 

Combined Spraying 

For scale, moss, and general clean-up, spray in winter with oil 
emulsion (Formula 18 or 23) or miscible oil. 

POTATO 

Wilt, Dry Rot, Scab, Rhizoctonia. — Obtain clean seed from healthy 
plants. Discard any which show decided dark brown discoloration or 



13 

decay at stem end to a depth of at least ^ incn fro m the end. Soak 
the seed before cutting for iy 2 hours in a solution of 1-1000 corrosive 
sublimate (1 ounce to 8 gallons of water), or two hours in formalde- 
hyde, 1 pound to 30 gallons of water. Use a wooden vessel for the 
sublimate. 

Jelly End, Soft Rot. — Avoid injuring and bruising in digging. 

Nematode. — Use clean seed and avoid infested soil. 

Army worms, Cutworms, Grasshoppers. — See "General Subjects." 

Flea Beetles. — Spray with Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9) as 
repellant. 

Tobacco Worm, Tomato Worm. — Spray with arsenate of lead, 2 
pounds to 50 gallons of water. 

Wireworms. — Rotate crops, replant in spring or later if seed is 
destroyed. Practice clean culture. 

Tuber Moth. — Cultivate thoroughly, hill vines, harvest early, fumi- 
gate infested tubers with carbon bisulfide, 10 to 30 pounds per thou- 
sand cubic feet of air space. Be sure to plant clean seed. 

ROSE 

Mildew. — Spray with lime-sulfur 1-10 before spring growth starts. 
Use dry sulfur, sulfur paste, or lime-sulfur 1-35 when disease first 
appears. Forty per cent nicotine sulfate, recommended below for 
aphis, may be added to this. 

Aphis. — Wash frequently with water under high pressure. Spray 
with 40 per cent nicotine sulfate, 1 pound to 200 gallons of water. 

White Rose Scale. — Spray with oil emulsion (Formula 18 or 23) 
or miscible oil in winter.- 

San Jose Scale. — See "Apple." 

Combined Spraying 
For fungous diseases and aphis, 40 per cent nicotine sulfate may 
be added to sulfur sprays as given above. 

SNAPDRAGON 

Rust. — Water and fertilize freely to stimulate growth. Destroy 
badly affected plants and clean up thoroughly in fall. Pentstemon is 
a fairly good substitute for Snapdragons and does not rust. 

SORGHUMS, SUDAN GRASS 

Smut.— Controlled by seed treatment. See "Grain." 
Aphis. — Water and cultivation to stimulate growth. 
Grasshoppers, Army worms, Cutworms. — See "General Subjects." 



14 



STRAWBERRY 

Leaf Spot. — Clean up" and burn leaves in late fall. Spray with 
Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9) if disease becomes serious. 

Boot and Stem Rot. — Use less water. Improve drainage. Wash 
out alkali in winter by flooding. 

Aphis. — Spray with 40 per cent nicotine sulfate, 1 pound to 200 
gallons of water as soon as insects appear. 

Flea Beetle. — Spray with Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9) as re- 
pellant. 

Crown Borer. — Eliminate and burn infested plants as soon as 
discovered. 

SWEET POTATO 

Wilt, Black Rot. — Get clean seed potatoes from an uninfested 
locality. Destroy diseased vines after digging. 

Soft Bot. — Avoid bruising. Dry well before storing. For long 
keeping, pack in dry sand. 

TOMATO 

Damping-off. — See "General Subjects." 

Wilt, Summer Blight. — Use plants free from damping-off. Replant 
if not too late. Cannot be controlled some years. 

Late Blight, Late Bot. — Occurs in late fall or winter crop. Spray 
with Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9) immediately after rains. 

Blossom End Bot. — Avoid drouth or irregular irrigation. 

Nematode. — See "General Subjects." 

Grasshoppers, Cutworms, Army worms. — See "General Subjects." 

Flea-beetles. — Use Bordeaux mixture (Formula 9) as repellant. 

Tobacco Worm.— See "Potato." 

Tomato Worm. — See "Potato." 

WALNUT 

Blight. — No specific remedy. Give trees best possible care. Thin 
out tops of old trees. Control aphis. Plant resistant varieties. 

Melaxuma. — Cut out diseased bark areas and apply Bordeaux 
paste. 

Crown Gall, Armillaria. — See "General Subjects." 

Winter Killing. — Irrigate about November 1 if no good rains have 
fallen. Whitewash bodies in the fall. Do not irrigate after August, 
except as above. 

Aphis. — Very thorough spraying with lime-sulfur 1-20 just before 
buds open is effective, but slow and expensive. The insects are easily 
killed with a summer spray of 40 per cent nicotine sulfate (Formula 



15 

27), but this method is also too slow for a large acreage of good-sized 
trees. Dusting with finely powdered tobacco is a promising method 
for rapid and effective work. With either spraying or dusting, con- 
trol is much easier if the work is done early in the summer before 
the foliage becomes very dense and the aphis extremely abundant. 

Yellow-necked Apple Caterpillar, Bed-humped Apple Caterpillar. — 
Spray with lead arsenate, 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. Hand-pick 
young colonies. 

WHEAT 

(See "Grain.") 

GENERAL SUBJECTS 

ANTS 

For the Argentine ant, place a sponge in a fruit jar, saturate it 
with poisoned syrup (Formula 7 or 8), make a few nailholes in the 
cover and keep the jar in pantry and several others in the yard about 
the house. Add more poison from time to time, label carefully and 
keep away from children. 

APHIDS (PLANT LICE) 

Almost all species can be controlled by spraying with 40 per cent 
nicotine sulfate, 1 pound to 200 gallons of water. Weak oil emulsions 
are also effective. Tobacco dust has been found useful in some cases 
and is usually more quickly and easily applied than liquid sprays. All 
these materials kill by contact and so when the insects are on the 
under side of the leaves they must be actually hit with the spray to 
be killed. 

ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT (OAK FUNGUS) 

No specific treatment. Surgery as in Crown Gall or Pear Blight 
can sometimes be practiced on roots and crowns of trees not too far 
gone. Black walnut, French pear and fig roots are practically immune. 
Affected areas in orchard may be isolated by opening a trench 3 to 4 
feet deep, around them. This may be immediately refilled if reopened 
every two years to keep roots cut off. 

CANKERWORMS 

Use tanglefoot bands or cotton bands during fall and spring. 
Spray with arsenate of lead, 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. 

CROWN GALL 

Throw out all affected nursery trees. The clean trees in a lot hav- 
ing a large percentage affected are of doubtful value. In orchard, 
occasionally examine crown and main roots, especially of stunted 



16 

trees. When not too far advanced, the galls may be chiseled out, 
sterilized with 1-1000 corrosive sublimate (Formula 28), and the 
wounds covered with Bordeaux paste or asphaltum. Badly affected 
and stunted trees should be pulled out and replanted, using fresh soil. 

CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS 

Broadcast freely poison bran mash (Formula 4 or 5) in front of 
invading insects or over infested plants. 

DAM PING-OFF 

Best controlled by skill in watering. Water plant beds only in 
morning and on bright days. Do not sprinkle oftener than necessary. 
In greenhouses or frames give plenty of ventilation. In making citrus 
seed beds, put an inch or two of clean sand on the top of the soil. Some 
forms of Damping-off may be prevented by steam-sterilizing the soil 
before planting or by drenching with a solution of 4 pounds of for- 
maldehyde in 50 gallons of water, using 1 gallon of solution to every 
square foot. This must be done two weeks in advance so that no odor 
of formalin remains at planting time. Where Damping-off has 
started, spraying the plants and ground with Bordeaux may do some 
good. 

FLIES 

Should be prevented from breeding by keeping manure, garbage 
and similar refuse material covered tightly. For poisoning flies in 
the house use about 2 per cent formaldehyde solution exposed in 
saucers, adding a little sugar. 

FROST 

With young citrus trees in frosty localities, wrap trunks with corn 
or milo stalks in winter. Heap up earth around butts. Enclose tender 
valuable young trees with burlap covers. For bearing groves obtain 
detailed information about methods and appliances for smudging with 
oil fuel. (See also Sour Sap.) 

GRASSHOPPERS 

Scatter freely poison bran mash or citrus bran mash (Formula 
4 or 5 ) . Be sure to mix the bran and poison as a dry mash and scatter 
in alfalfa fields about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and around orchard 
trees or other plants early in the morning. 

GUMMOSIS 

Not a specific disease. Many different causes. In stone fruit and 
citrus trees gumming is simply a symptom of distress. May be due 
to unsuitable soil, poor condition of soil, excess or lack of water, frost 
or attacks of parasites. Treatment must vary according to cause. 



17 

Badly gummed branches may be removed, gummy diseased areas of 
bark cut out and the wounds treated as in citrus gummosis. Splitting 
the bark is useless and often harmful. 

NEMATODE (EEL WORM) 

Do not attempt to grow susceptible crops on infested soil. Keep 
such areas clean cultivated in summer or in a cereal crop. Grain 
may be grown in winter. Almost all important crops except cereals 
and also fruit trees, are attacked by the garden nematode. The beet 
nematode attacks some other plants, and where it occurs careful rota- 
tions should be followed with the total exclusion of beets for many 
years. Alfalfa is not seriously affected by the common species, but 
carries it over to future crops. This crop may be safely planted on 
beet nematode soil. Nematodes are worst on sandy soil. 

PHYSIOLOGIAL DISEASES 

(Little Leaf, Exanthema, Die-back, Mottled Leaf, Eosette, Bitter Pit, 
Dry Eot, Blossom-end Eot) 

Diseases of a specific nature in which the cause is not known and 
which seem unlike the usual effects of unfavorable conditions or para- 
sites. Most of these troubles show a relation to soil conditions and 
occur especially in dry, sandy, gravelly, or hard-pan soils, those very 
deficient in humus, or under conditions of irregular soil moisture. 
Trees standing over old barnyards or corrals or where excessive 
amounts of manure have been applied are also likely to show some of 
these conditions. The best possibilities of treatment lie along the line 
of increasing the humus content of the soil by means of green-manure 
crops and mulches, breaking up all hard-pan and plow-soles, more 
careful irrigation to insure the maintenance of a proper and uniform 
moisture condition of the soil down to a depth of several feet, and 
throughout the season until rains occur, and planting of alfalfa in 
orchards where plenty of water is available. The soil in areas where 
these troubles occur should be examined for alkali or other injurious 
substances. Where any of these diseases are serious and persistent it 
may be better to grow some other crop than to keep on with one which 
is seriously affected. 

RABBITS 

If very abundant, must be fenced out of young orchards and 
gardens to avoid serious damage. Shooting and poisoning are the 
principal means of destruction. An application to the trunks of young 
trees of whitewash containing bitter aloes is sometimes recommended, 
but this has not shown much value in actual practice. The same 
may be said in regard to smearing the trunks with blood. 



18 



SLUGS AND SNAILS 

May be controlled to some extent by sprinkling dry lime dust upon 
the ground in circles about the plants, upon the leaves of the plants 
themselves or in any way so that the slugs will come in contact with the 
lime. A mixture of salt with the lime is sometimes recommended. 
This, however, is injurious to plants if it comes in contact with them. 
May also be trapped by laying boards upon the ground near the plants 
upon which they feed, thus affording a shelter under which they may 
be found and killed. 

SOUR SAP, WINTER INJURY 

All the ordinary forms of Sour Sap are due to freezing, alternate 
warm and cold weather, or other climatic injury in winter. Differ- 
ences in the effect upon individual trees or orchards are due to differ- 
ences in condition and susceptibility of the trees, produced mostly by 
variation in the moisture condition of the soil. Do not force growth 
late in summer. Irrigate, if possible, about November 1 if no heavy 
rain has fallen. Whitewash bodies of trees early in November. 

SQUIRRELS AND GOPHERS 

May be controlled by persistent poisoning, fumigation with carbon 
bisulfide, trapping and shooting. For poisoning material, the com- 
mercial preparations may be used or Formula 33. 

Poisoned Fruit. — Strychnine sulfate may be sprinkled over orange 
halves or watermelon rind, or a solution of 1 ounce of strychnine sul- 
fate dissolved in 1 gallon of boiling water may be used for saturating 
grain or other material, after allowing the solution to cool. 

SUNBURN 

Whitewash bodies in fall as well as spring. Shape the trees so as 
to shade bodies. Cut young trees back well before planting. Shade 
trunks with shakes or protectors. Do not allow trees to suffer from 
drouth. 

TENT CATERPILLARS 

Cut out and burn nests. Colonies collected on the trunk may be 
killed by spraying with gasoline or oil emulsion. Cut out egg masses 
at pruning time. Spray with arsenate of lead, 2 pounds to 50 gallons 
of water. 

TREE WOUNDS, PRUNING CUTS 

Make a clean, smooth cut, trimming the bark down smoothly to 
sound tissues around the edges. In the case of branches, make a 
smooth cut, leaving no projecting stub. Thoroughly cover the wound 



19 

with Bordeaux paste (Formula 10) and after callus starts to form 
about the edges, cover with grade D asphaltum or similar material put 
on in a melted condition. Go over the work occasionally, especially in 
the fall, and renew the application of asphaltum until wound is 
entirely healed. 



FORMULAS AND DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS 

ARSENICALS 

Acid Lead Arsenate (Lead Hydrogen Arsenate, Di-lead Arsenate, 
often labeled "Standard" or Lead Arsenate). — The acid type of lead 
arsenate contains more poison per pound than the basic type and is 
a stronger and quicker-acting poison. It is, however, somewhat 
susceptible to the action of other chemicals, particularly those of an 
alkaline nature (such as soaps, lime-sulfur solution, etc.), and is more 
or less dissolved by them when used as a combination spray. In the 
moist climates along the coast, or in continuous damp, cloudy weather 
elsewhere, whether used alone or in combination with other sprays, 
some of the arsenic is apt to be dissolved and cause serious foliage 
injury. It is not considered as a safe arsenical for use on stone fruits, 
beans or other susceptible plants. 

Basic Lead Arsenate (Usually labeled " Tri-plurnbic" or "Neu- 
tral"). — The basic type of lead arsenate contains less arsenic per 
pound than the acid type, and is a weaker and slower-acting poison. 
It is not decomposed, however, by chemicals of an alkaline nature, 
such as are usually applied with it as a combination spray, nor by 
the damp weather of the coast regions. It is considered the only safe 
arsenical to use on stone fruits, beans or other susceptible plants. 

The lead arsenates are usually sold as a paste containing about 
50 per cent of water, or as a dry powder. The paste should be thinned 
somewhat with water and worked into a smooth cream before adding 
to the spray tank. The powder may be added directly to the tank and 
mixed by means of the agitator. 

For codling moth and most defoliating insects, use: 

Formula 1 

Acid lead arsenate paste 4 to 8 pounds 

Water 100 gallons 

or 

Formula 2 

Basic lead arsenate paste 5 to 10 pounds 

Water 100 gallons 



20 

Dry or powdered lead arsenate contains twice as much arsenic as 
the paste, therefore use only one-half as much in the above formulas. 

Zinc Arsenite is a more active and stronger poison than either 
type of lead arsenate and is useful in controlling the various cater- 
pillars which are troublesome on pears and apples in the early spring, 
but is very apt to cause injury if the application is made after the 
time of full bloom. 

Formula 3 

Zinc arsenite powder 3 pounds 

Water 100 gallons 

White Arsenic (Arsenic trioxide) is only sparingly soluble in 
water, although sufficiently so to prohibit its use on plants as an 
insecticide. Its use as a stomach poison is therefore limited to the 
preparation of poison baits, for the control of grasshoppers, army- 
worms, cutworms, etc., and in some other ^cases where the insecticide 
is not to be applied to growing plants. 

Poison Bran-mash. — 

Formula 4 

Bran 25 pounds 

White arsenic 1 pound 

• Molasses (cheap blackstrap preferred) 2 quarts 

Mix the arsenic and the bran dry, and add the molasses which has 
been diluted with water. Add enough water and mix thoroughly to 
make a dry mash which will broadcast easily. 

Citrus Bran-mash. — 

Formula 5 

White arsenic 1 pound 

Molasses (cheap blackstrap preferred) 2 quarts 

Lemons (or oranges) 6 fruits 

Water (about) 4 gallons 

Bran 25 pounds 

Mix the above materials as follows: Stir thoroughly the white 
arsenic, molasses, and water first. Grind the lemons, including the 
rinds, in a meat grinder, or chop fine, and add to this liquid. Then 
slowly pour this over the bran and stir thoroughly until an even 
mixture is secured. 

The amount of water to use in the preparation of these baits will 
vary according to the coarseness of the bran, or substitutes. A dry 
mash is preferable to a wet mash because it does not harden under the 
heat of the sun and remains palatable, while wet mash becomes baked 
and unattractive. 



21 

Substitutes in Poison Baits. — Paris green may be substituted for 
white arsenic in formulas 4 and 5. Alfalfa meal, shorts, or rice meal, 
have been successfully used as a substitute for bran in the preparation 
of the above formulas. 

Sodium Arsenate. — This arsenical is readily soluble in water and 
is one of the most violent of the plant poisons. It is probably the 
most quick-acting of any of the better known arsenical poisons, and 
commonly used in the preparation of weed killers, poison fly-papers, 
cattle dips for the control of ticks, ant syrups, and to some extent 
in the preparation of poison baits. 

Sodium arsenite may be purchased ready-made as a white powder, 
but it is not always readily obtained at pharmacies, nor is it always 
dependable in having a uniform amount of arsenic. This chemical 
can be easily prepared from white arsenic by combining the latter in 
the presence of water with sal soda, soda-ash, caustic soda, or a good 
grade of concentrated lye in the following proportions : 

Sal soda or washing soda, 2 parts to 1 part of white arsenic. 
Soda-ash, 1 part to 1 part of white arsenic. 
Caustic soda, 1 part to 2 parts of white arsenic. 
Concentrated lye, 1 part to 2 parts of white arsenic. 

If sal soda or soda ash is used it is necessary to boil the mixture 
fifteen or twenty minutes before the arsenic is dissolved. If caustic 
soda or concentrated lye is used, little or no heat is necessary. In 
either case, a corrosive chemical is formed known as sodium arsenite. 

A soluble arsenical can be made by using one part of caustic soda 
to four parts of arsenic trioxide. Such a solution, however, has a 
tendency to form crystals on standing. 

Sodium Arsenite. — 

Formula 6 

Sal soda 2 ounces (or 2 pounds) 

White arsenic 1 ounce (or 1 pound) 

"Water (about) % pint (or 1 gallon) 

Put all the ingredients together in an iron or graniteware kettle 
(do not use aluminum), of sufficient size to allow for considerable 
frothing, and boil fifteen or twenty minutes, or until solution is clear. 

A modification of Professor C. W. Woodworth's formula which has 

been successfully used in municipal campaigns against the Argentine 

ant is as follows: 

Argentine Ant Syrup — 

Formula 7 

Sugar 18 pounds 

Water - 6 quarts 



22 

First dissolve the sugar in the water by stirring, or by heating and 
stirring, then add one ounce of white arsenic which has been pre- 
viously converted into sodium arsenite, according to the directions 
given in formula 6, and add enough water to make exactly three 
gallons. This formula will produce a syrup containing .2 of 1 per cent 
of arsenic trioxide by weight. 

The U. S. Bureau of Entomology recommends a later formula for 
the preparation of Argentine ant syrup which is said to be superior 
to any other formula tested by them, "on account of its stability at 
high temperatures, freedom from crystalization, and continued attrac- 
tiveness. ' ' 

Government Argentine Ant Syrup. — 

Formula 8 
Prepare a syrup : 

Granulated sugar 15 pounds 

Water 7 pints 

Tartaric acid (crystalized) *4 ounce 

Boil for 30 minutes. Allow to cool. 

Dissolve sodium arsenite (chemically pure) % ounce 

In hot water 1 pint 

Cool. Add poison solution to syrup and stir well. 
Add to poisoned syrup : 

Honey iy 2 pounds 

Mix thoroughly. 

COPPER COMPOUNDS 

Bordeaux Mixture (Average Strength) . — 

Formula 9 

Bluestone 16 pounds 

Quicklime 20 pounds 

Water 200 gallons 

Dissolve the bluestone and slake the lime in separate vats. Thor- 
oughly mix the dissolved bluestone with one-half the water, and the 
slaked lime with the other half. Run the two mixtures together in a 
single stream into the spray tank through a fine screen. For con- 
venience the mixing vats may be placed on an elevated platform, and 
the two parts mixed as they are flowing into the spray tank. The 
milk of lime should be continuously stirred during the mixing. 

A somewhat less satisfactory Bordeaux mixture may be made as 
follows : Slake the lime and dissolve the bluestone in separate barrels 
as above. Fill the spray tank half full of water, add the dissolved 
bluestone, strain in the lime while the agitator is running, add re- 
mainder of water, and mix thoroughly. 



23 

Bordeaux Paste. — 

Formula 10 

A — Bluestone 12 pounds 

Water 8 gallons 

B — Quicklime 24 pounds 

Water 8 gallons 

Dissolve the bluestone and slake the lime separately in the amounts 
of water specified. Then mix together equal quantities of each in- 
gredient, making up only enough for each day's use. 

Commercial Bordeaux Mixture. — Several preparations of this sort 
are on the market in the form of a paste or dry powder to be diluted 
with water. Objection is sometimes made to these preparations that 
they will not remain in suspension in water as well as the home-made 
Bordeaux mixture, but some of them are probably as good or better 
than the average mixture prepared on the ranch. The commercial 
preparations are more expensive but more convenient for use, and 
are especially of interest to the small grower. 

Bluestone {Copper Sulfate). — A soluble compound of copper, the 
raw material for the preparation of most other compounds of copper. 
This cannot be used on foliage. 
For dipping grain use 

Formula 11 

Bluestone 1 pound 

Water 4 gallons 

Dip for 3 minutes. 

Followed by 

Quicklime 1 pound 

Slaked in water 10 gallons 

For lemon ivash water use 

Formula 12 

Bluestone 11/2 pounds 

Water 1000 gallons 

SULFUR AND SULFUR COMPOUNDS 

Dry Sulfur. — For dusting upon plants for the control of surface 
mildew, red spider, or other parasites, the fineness of the sulfur is 
an all-important consideration. Flowers of sulfur, the finest and 
fluffiest grade of sublimed sulfur, has been heretofore recommended 
for application as a dust. At present, however, there are upon the 
market several brands of extremely finely ground sulfurs, which are 
finer than the best grade of sublimed sulfur and no more expensive. 
Some of these sulfurs, which have been specially prepared for dusting, 
are ground to pass a 200-mesh bolting cloth. These are apt to cake or 



24 

to clog the dusting apparatus. If three parts of sulfur are thoroughly 
mixed with one part of hydrated lime, kaolin, or other inert powder, 
these difficulties may be avoided. 

Sulfur Piastes or Wettable Sulfurs. — For various reasons it is often 
desirable to mix sulfur and water and apply to plants as a spray. 
Sulfur, however, is not easily wetted with water and it is a difficult 
matter to make a uniform mixture of the two. It has been found that 
a number of substances, soap, oleic acid, glue, diatomaceous earth, 
flour, dextrin, etc., when mixed with water and sulfur, have the prop- 
erty of counteracting the natural aversion of sulfur to water without 
otherwise altering the nature of the sulfur. Certain of these sub- 
stances have been used in the preparation of commercial sulfur pastes 
or wettable sulfurs. These commercial pastes, as now manufactured, 
contain from 45 to 50 per cent of sulfur in a very finely divided con- 
dition, the remainder being water and one of the substances mentioned 
above. The effect of these pastes is that of dry sulfur. The usual 
strength to use is 

Formula 13 

Commercial sulfur paste 8 to 21 pounds 

Water 100 gallons 

Home-made Wettable Sulfur. — A satisfactory wettable sulfur can 
be easily made at home by the use of glue water as follows : 

Formula 14 

Powdered glue % ounce 

Hot water 1% gallons 

Sulfur (flowers or powdered) 5 pounds 

Water to make 100 gallons 

Dissolve the glue in hot water, or soak over night in 1% gallons 
of cold water. Add the glue water to the sulfur a little at a time and 
work up into a smooth paste as free from lumps as possible. Rub- 
bing is better than stirring. Wash this paste into the spray tank 
through a fine screen, using the remainder of the glue water to wash 
it through and a stiff brush to break up the remainder of the lumps. 
Then add plain water to make 100 gallons. 

Another formula more expensive than the above is 

Formula 15 
Make a paste of 

Flour 4 pounds 

Water 4 gallons 

Mix this with 

Sulfur (sublimed or powdered) 5 pounds 

Then add 

Water to make 100 gallons 



25 

The usual grades of sublimed or powdered sulfur may be wetted 
in the manner described in Formulas 14 and 15, but if the best results 
are to be obtained, the finest grade of sulfur obtainable should be used. 
The sulfurs especially prepared for dusting are highly recommended 
for this purpose. 

Lime-sulfur Solution. — This is the most active form in which sul- 
fur compounds are commonly used in the control of insects or fungi. 
Its causticity prohibits its use on foliage except that of the more 
hardy plants, and then in very dilute form. Its largest use is as a 
dormant spray for the controlof certain fungous diseases, scale insects 
and a variety of other pests of deciduous trees. 

Commercial Lime-sulfur Solution. — The growers of the state are 
being supplied with concentrated commercial lime-sulfur solution of 
good quality and at reasonable prices. The great bulk of this im- 
portant pest remedy used in the state is therefore of commercial 
manufacture, testing between 32° and 34° Baume. It is only neces- 
sary to dilute this with water before spraying. 

Home-made Lime-sulfur Solution. — 

Formula 17 

Stone Lime 50 pounds 

Sulfur (sublimed or powdered) 100 pounds 

Water to make 50 gallons 

Heat in a cooking barrel or vessel about one-third of the total 
volume of water required. When the water is hot, add all of the 
lime, and at once add all the sulfur, which should previously have been 
made into a thick paste with water. After the lime is slaked, another 
third of the water should be added, preferably hot, and the cooking 
should be continued until a clear orange-colored solution is obtained 
(usually 45 to 60 minutes), when the remainder of the water should 
be added, either hot or cold as is most convenient. The boiling due 
to the slaking of the lime thoroughly mixes the ingredients at the 
start, but subsequent stirring is necessary if the wash is cooked by 
direct heat in a kettle. After the wash has been prepared it must 
be allowed to settle and then strained through a fine sieve as it is 
being run into the spray tank. The resultant product is a concen- 
trated solution of lime-sulfur, which should be diluted about six times 
with water for a winter spray. 

Alkali Sulfides. — Sulfides of soda ("soluble sulfur") are some- 
times used in place of lime-sulfur solution and have some advantages 
over the liquid preparations. 



26 

CRUDE PETROLEUM 

The use of crude petroleum is almost entirely limited to the winter 
spraying of deciduous trees when the buds are entirely dormant. It 
is generally applied from November to February. The crude oil 
emulsion is especially recommended for black scale (Saissetia oleae), 
European fruit Lecanium (Leoanium corni), European or Italian 
pear scale (Epidiaspis piricola), cherry scale (Lecanium cerasorum) 
and other scales infesting deciduous fruit trees. It is practically the 
only spray treatment which has been effective against the European 
or Italian pear scale and, to a certain extent, will destroy the winter 
eggs of many of the aphids, red spider, and some of the defoliating 
caterpillars. 

"When crude oil is thoroughly applied it sometimes penetrates the 
fruit buds to a considerable extent, some of which may be injured and 
even killed. The great majority of the buds are not injured, how- 
ever, but appear to be stimulated to a more vigorous growth, produc- 
ing a character of foliage which withstands attacks of diseases. It is 
good practice, especially in dry seasons, not to apply crude oil emul- 
sion until there is an indication of the swelling of the buds. 

A natural crude petroleum, testing about 23° Baume, is preferred 
as it contains some of the lighter and more penetrating oils. Heavier 
crudes than this have given satisfactory results, even those testing 
18° and even lower. Residuum oils (the residue of crue petroleum 
after the lighter portions have been distilled off) can be used if 
natural crude oil is unobtainable, provided their content of asphaltum 
is not too high to prevent their emulsification. 

Crude Oil Emulsion. — 

Formula 18 

Water 175 gallons 

Liquid soap 3 gallons 

Natural crude petroleum (21°-24° Baume) 25 gallons 

Partly fill the spray tank with water, add the liquid soap, agitate 
thoroughly for one minute, add crude pil and continue the agitation, 
while running in the remainder of the water. If liquid soap cannot 
be obtained, use 20 pounds of fish-oil soap dissolved in 10 gallons of 
boiling water to which 3 pounds of caustic soda or lye have been added. 
To kill moss or lichens on fruit trees add 2 pounds of caustic soda or 
lye to the formula. 

During the spraying operation this emulsion should be thoroughly 
agitated and great care taken to wet all of the twigs. From 8 to 10 
gallons should be used on a tree. 



27 



PETROLEUM DISTILLATES 

Kerosene, of about 40° Baume, has been used to a considerable 
extent as an insecticide, particularly on citrus trees, applied in the 
form of an emulsion. The cheaper, unrefined distillates have now 
largely replaced kerosene as a foliage spray. These are more effective 
as an insecticide, so that smaller percentages can be used in the emul- 
sions, but coupled with their superior insecticidal properties is their 
greater toxicity to fruit and foliage. The toxicity of an oil varies 
with climatic conditions, foliage injury being most certain in dry 
weather with a temperature of 95° F. or more. Unfortunately, the 
season when spraying is most effective against scale insects on citrus 
trees is often during the hottest and driest months. It seems impos- 
sible to guarantee immunity from damage with any of the varying 
distillates obtainable, irrespective of climatic conditions or the con- 
dition of the trees. 

Less injury to citrus fruit and foliage occurs in the coast regions 
where distillate emulsions have been used, but in the interior sections 
the use of this insecticide is very hazardous. 

Spraying with distillates, or with any other material, is not recom- 
mended as a substitute for fumigation in commercial citrus orchards, 
except in case of 3 r oung orchards, trees about dooryards, or where 
fumigation may not be convenient, or infestation may be light or 
limited to occasional trees. In such cases, Formula 19 is considered 
the most satisfactory. 

Kerosene emulsion is the safest of the petroleum-distillate sprays, 
although the most expensive. The "W.W. " or "Water White" is a 
trade name of a low-grade kerosene and is safer than the usual grade 
of material sold as "distillate." The highly refined "case goods" 
kerosene has been found to cause the least amount of injury of any 
of the petroleum derivatives, but its cost would prohibit its use except 
on a small scale. If much of the kerosene emulsion is allowed to run 
down the trunks of young trees, injury is likely to occur just beneath 
the surface of the ground. 

The following formula is intended for use on citrus trees : 

Kerosene Emulsion. — ■ 

Formula 19 

Kerosene 15 gallons 

Liquid soap % gallon 

(Or hard soap 4 pounds) 

Water 200 gallons 

If liquid soap is available, it is preferable to hard soap, since no 
heating is required. Hard soap, preferably fish-oil, is cut in thin 



28 

slices and dissolved in hot water. The soap is placed directly in the 
spray tank with 10 or 15 gallons of water or more (the exact amount 
is not important), and then the engine is started. The oil is now 
added slowly, and the materials are emulsified by being run through 
the pump under pressure. After a few minutes the rest of the water 
may be added, and the spray is ready to apply to the trees. 

Certain "tree" distillates, testing 31° to 32° Baume, said to be 
selected and partially refined, have lately displaced to a considerable 
extent the heavier distillates of 27° to 28° for use on citrus trees. 

"Tree" Distillate Emulsion. — 

Formula 20 

Tree distillate (31°-32° Baume) 4 gallons 

Liquid soap % gallon 

(Or hard soap 5 pounds) 

Water 200 gallons 

These materials are emulsified in the same manner as explained for 
the kerosene emulsion, Formula 19. If the distillate is used without 
soap, the following is the formula: 

Straight "Tree" Distillate.— 

Formula 21 

Tree distillate (31°-32° Baume) 4 to 6 gallons 

Caustic soda (95 per cent) 7 pounds 

Water 200 gallons 

In the case of the straight distillate, the oil is kept in suspension 
in the water by agtitation and forms an unstable mechanical emulsion, 
which separates quickly in standing. In using this, it is necessary to 
have the spray outfit equipped with a powerful and efficient agitator, 
which must be kept going continuously during the spraying operations. 

The use of petroleum-distillate sprays against black scale on olive 
trees is now being recognized as a profitable practice. For this pur- 
pose the heavier distillates of 28° to 30° Baume are used since olive 
foliage is very resistant to spray injury and also because the spray 
can be applied through the winter months when low temperatures 
and high humidities are the rule. 

Distillates of this density are also much used as a dormant spray 
on deciduous trees, although crude oil sprays are replacing more and 
more the distillates for this purpose. 

Heavy Distillate Emulsions. — For use on olives, the following 
mechanical emulsion is recommended : 



29 

Formula 22 

Distillate (28° Baume) 7 gallons 

Caustic soda (95%) 5 to 7 pounds 

Water to make 200 gallons 

First dissolve the caustic soda in a small amount of water and 
add to the water in the spray tank; begin the agitation and slowly 
add the distillate, continuing the agitation during the application. 
This spray will also remove lichens or moss from the trees. 

By reducing the amount of crude oil from 25 gallons to 15 gallons 
in Formula 18, the crude oil emulsion may be used on olive trees for 
the control of black scale. 

For use on deciduous trees the following is recommended : 

Formula 23 

Distillate. (27°-28° Baume) 20 gallons 

Fish-oil soap 30 pounds 

Water to make , 12 gallons 

Dissolve the fish-oil soap in water, heating it to the boiling point, 
add the distillate and agitate thoroughly while the solution is hot. 
For use add 20 gallons of water to each gallon of the above mixture. 

Commercial Prepared Emulsions and Miscible Oils. — Many grow- 
ers realize the difficulty in securing proper materials for home-made 
emulsions and the variability of the home-made mixtures even under 
the best conditions. They prefer to buy manufactured products, 
especially when only small quantities are needed. The commercial 
emulsions and miscible oils are no more effective than a good home- 
made preparation and are only of interest as a matter of convenience. 
These preparations are on the market in great variety, many of which 
are sold under trade names. Practically all grades of petroleum dis- 
tillates, as well as crude petroleum, are obtainable in a form ready to 
be used, after simple dilution with water. If these ready-made prep- 
arations are to be used, it is especially important to purchase only 
from reliable and well-known manufacturers or dealers. The com- 
mercial products in general are satisfactory for use for the purposes 
indicated in the above formulas. 

The following is recommended for the control of thrips : 

Distillate Emulsion and Tobacco Extract. — 

Formula 24 

Water 12 gallons 

Fish-oil soap 30 pounds 

Distillate (32°-34° Baume) 20 gallons 



30 

The above emulsion is prepared in the ordinary way as a stock 
solution. For use in the orchard dilute 1 to 20 parts of water. To 
every 200 gallons of this diluted spray add 1 pint of tobacco extract 
containing 40 per cent nicotine, or about 3y 2 gallons of tobacco extract 
containing 2% per cent nicotine. 

The Rosin Wash is chiefly used for young and tender nursery 
stock, because it does not cause the injury often following the appli- 
cation of petroleum distillates. The preparation is 

Formula 25 

Rosin 10 pounds 

Caustic soda (76% to 95%) 3 pounds 

Fish oil iy 2 pounds 

Water to make 50 gallons 

To a gallon of hot water in an iron kettle add the fish oil and the 
rosin and heat until the latter is softened ; after first dissolving the 
caustic soda in a small quantity of water add it and stir the mixture 
thoroughly, after which pour in enough water to make 50 gallons of 
spray material. 

Crude Carbolic Acid Emulsion. — 

Formula 26 

Fish-oil soap 40 pounds 

Crude carbolic acid 5 gallons 

Water to make 40 gallons 

Dissolve the soap in hot water completely, add the carbolic acid and 
heat to the boiling point for twenty minutes (reserve some water to 
add in case the mixture begins to boil over). For use add 20 gallons 
of water to every gallon of the above stock solution. The emulsion 
needs little or no agitation. 

TOBACCO PREPARATIONS 

Concentrated commercial preparations of tobacco have almost 
entirely superseded the home-made tobacco infusions on account of 
their greater convenience and uniformity. A material containing 40 
per cent nicotine in the form of nicotine sulfate is recommended for 
the preparation of contact insecticides containing nicotine. The usual 
formula is 

Formula 27 

Tobacco extract (nicotine sulfate 40%) 1 pint 

Fish-oil soap 4 to 5 pounds 

Water 100 to 150 gallons 

For small quantities use 1 teaspoonful to 1 gallon of water. 



31 

Tobacco Dust. — Finely-ground tobacco dnst finds some use as in- 
secticide, particularly in the control of aphids. Fifty per cent of kaolin 
or hydrated lime is sometimes mixed with it as a diluent. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Corrosive Sublimate (Bichloride of Mercury). — This is a very 
poisonous substance and is one of the most powerful of germicides ; it 
is employed to some extent in plant-disease treatment. The usual 
strength is 

Formula 28 

Corrosive sublimate 1 ounce 

Water 8 gallons, 

or 1 part to 1000. 



t?" 



Tablets to make this strength when added to 1 pint of water may 
be obtained at drug stores. Distilled or rain water should be used; 
the solution must not be kept in a metal container. 

Whitewash. — 

Formula 29 

(Ordinary Formula) 

Water 2 gallons 

Quick-lime 10 pounds 

Add more water after slaking to bring the wash to the desired 
consistency. 

A more durable white-wash: 

Formula 30 

Quick-lime 5 pounds 

Salt y 2 pound 

Sulfur % pound 

Slake the lime slowly with water and add the salt and sulfur while 
it is boiling. Add enough more water to make a good wash. This is 
good for white-washing the bodies of trees in the fall. 

Government Whitewash. — 

Formula 31 

Quick-lime 40 pounds 

Salt 15 pounds 

Rice Flour 3 pounds 

Spanish whiting y 2 pound 

Glue 1 pound 

Water 5 gallons 

This is complicated and expensive, and some of the ingredients are 
often difficult to obtain. 



32 

Grafting Wax. — 

Many different combinations are used for this purpose, most of 
them being various combinations of beeswax and rosin. The following 
formula is a good one : 

Formula 32 

Rosin 4 pounds 

Beeswax 1 pound 

Linseed oil 1 pint 

The ingredients are all melted and mixed together in a kettle. In hot 
weather use more rosin. 

Some use one pound of tallow as a substitute for the linseed oil. 
One ounce of lamp-black or one pint of flour is sometimes added. 
Asphaltum is used to some extent as a substitute for rosin and beeswax 
and, in fact, straight asphaltum is used successfully in some cases for 
grafting wax. 

Carbon Bisulfide, is a liquid which evaporates quickly when ex- 
posed to the air, forming a heavy and inflammable vapor of a great 
penetrating power. In using the material for fumigation, it is essential 
that it be placed at the top of the room in a shallow container in order 
that the heavy vapors as they are driven off will thoroughly diffuse 
with the air contained in the space to be fumigated. The proper 
amount to use depends upon the type of room being fumigated and 
ranges up to about 30 pounds to 1000 cubic feet in ordinary rooms 
where the walls and floor have not been made especially tight. The 
best results are obtained by doing this work when the temperature is 
above 75° F. 

Carbon bisulfide is one of the best agents for destroying ground 
squirrels that have failed to take poisoned grain, or having once 
survived the poison refuse to take it again. It is recommended for 
use against ground squirrels during the winter season when the 
ground is wet. 

The two best methods of applying carbon bisulfide are by the use 
of the "waste-ball" method and of the "destructor." The common 
waste-ball method is to pour a tablespoonful of carbon bisulfide on a 
piece of cotton waste, corn cob, horse manure, or other absorptive 
material, which should then be thrown as far down the hole as possible 
and the opening immediately closed with earth. Explosion of the 
gas in connection with the waste-ball method is recommended where 
the ground is damp and there is no danger from fire. The explosion 
of the gas forms new compounds which are poisonous and may diffuse 
somewhat more rapidly than the vapors of the material. A method 



33 

which is said to be equally effective to exploding the gas as above is 
by the use of the "destructor," which pumps the vaporized carbon 
bisulfide into the burrow. 

Poisoned Barley. — -Following is the latest government formula for 
preparing poisoned barley for California ground squirrels : 

Formula 33 

Barley (clean grain) 16 quarts 

Strychnine (powdered alkaloid) 1 ounce 

Bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) 1 ounce 

Thin starch paste % pint 

Heavy corn sirup 14 pint 

Glycerin 1 tablespoonful 

Saccharin 1/10 ounce 

Mix thoroughly 1 ounce of powdered strychnine and 1 ounce of 
common baking soda. Sift this into % pint of thin, hot starch paste 
and stir to a smooth, creamy mass. (The starch paste is made by 
dissolving 1 heaping tablespoonful of dry gloss starch in a little cold 
water, which is then added to % pint of boiling water; boil and stir 
constantly until a clear thin paste is formed.) Add y± pint of heavy 
corn sirup and 1 tablespoonful of glycerin and stir thoroughly. Add 
1/10 ounce of saccharin and stir thoroughly. Pour this mixture over 
16 quarts of clean barley and mix well so that each grain is coated. 

Caution: All containers of poison and all utensils used in the 
preparation of poisons should be kept plainly labeled and out of reach 
of children, irresponsible persons and live stock. 



34 



INDEX 



Alfalfa 1, Nematode 17, in orchards 17, 
meal 21. 

Alkali 17, sulfides 25. 

Angoumois moth 9. 

Anthracnose bean 4. 

Ants 15, Argentine 15, sirups 21 and 22. 

Aphids 15, oil emulsion for 26, tobacco dust 
for 31. 

Aphis, green and rosy apple 2 ; green, rosy, 
wooly 3 ; bean 4, cabbage 5, celery 6, 
cherry 6, chrysanthemum 6, citrus 7, 
cucumber 8, dahlia 8, melon 9, pea 10, 
green on pear root 12, sorghum 13, 
strawberry 14, walnut 14. 

Apoplexy grape 9. 

Armillaria, almond 1, apricot 3, citrus 6, 
olive 10, peach 11, plum and prune 12, 
walnut 14, 18. 

Armyworms, alfalfa 1, beet 5, corn 7, grain 
8, grape 9, onion 10, pea 10, potato 13, 
sorghum 13, tomato 14, 1 6. 

Arsenate of lead, cherry 6, grape 9, red 
humped caterpillar 12, cankerworms 15, 
19. 

Arsenic, white 20, trioxide 20. 

Arsenicals 19. 

Asphaltum, peach 11, crown gall 16, wounds, 
pruning cuts 19, residium oils 26, graft- 
ing wax 32. 

Bark beetles, apricot 4, olive 10. 

Barley 4, straw 7, 8, sensitive to bluestone 
8, poisoned 33. 

Beans 4, Black eyes 5, arsenicals on 19. 

Beeswax 32. 

Beetles, asparagus 4, cucumber 8. 

Bichloride of Mercury 31. 

Bitter pit, olive 10, 17. 

Black heart, apricot 3. 

Black knot, grape 9. 

Black leaf, pear 11. 

Black rot, sweet potato 14. 

Black scale 3, olive 10, plum and prune 12, 
26, olives 28. 

Blight, apple 2, beet 5, celery 6, pea 10, 
peach 11, pear 11, late tomato 17, wal- 
nut 14. 

Blister mite, pear 11. 

Blossom blight, apricot 3. 

Blossom end rot, tomato 14, 17. 

Blue mold, citrus 7. 

Bluestone 7, smut 8 and 23, lemon wash 23. 

Bordeaux, apple scab 2, celery blight 6, 
paste 7, peach 11, pear scab 11, flea 
beetles on potatoes 13, paste 14 and 16, 
paste 19 and 27. 

Bordeaux mixture, apple scab 2, bush fruit 
5, citrus 7, melons 9, pear 12, straw- 
berry 14, tomato 14, commercial 23. 

Borers, shot hole 4, bush fruits 5, currant 
and gooseberry 8, deciduous nursery 
stock 10, California peach 11. 

Brown rot, apricot 3. citrus 7, peach 11, 
plum and prune 12. 

Bud blight, apricot 3. 

Burlap covers 16. 



California grape root worm 9. 

California peach borer, almond 1, apricot 

4, cherry 6, peach 11, plum and prune 

12. 
Cane blight, bush fruits 5. 
Canker worm, apple 2, cherry 6, peach 11, 

plum and prune 12, 15. 
Carbolic acid, emulsion 5 and 30. 
Carbon bisulfide, bean weavil 4, grain 9, 

potato tuber moth 13, squirrels and 

gophers 18, 32. 
Caterpillar, see tent and red humped cater- 
pillars, alfalfa 1, celery 6, hollyhock 9. 

red humped apple 15, yellow necked 

apple 15, pears and apples 20, tent 18, 

26. 
Caustic soda 21, 26, 28, 30. 
Centipede 4. 
Citrus 6, nursery stock 9, frost 16, bran 

mash, 16 and 20, 27. 
Codling moth, apple 2, 3; pear 11 and 12, 

19. 
Combined spraying, almond 1, apple 2, 

apricot 4, peach 11, pear 12, plum and 

prune 12, rose 13. 
Copper compounds 22. 
Copper sulfate 23. 
Corrosive sublimate, pear blight 11, potato 

13, crown gall 6, 31. 
Cottony rot, citrus 7. 
Crown borer, strawberry 14. 

Crown gall, alfalfa 1, almond 1, apricot 3, 
grape 9, 10, peach 11, plum 12, walnut 

14, 15. 

Crude oil emulsion 12, 26. 

Crude petroleum 26. 

Curly top, beet 5. 

Cutworms, alfalfa 1, beet 5, corn 7, grain 
9, grape 9, onion 10, pea 10, potato 13, 
sorghum and Sudan grass 13, tomato 
14, 16. 

Damping off, citrus 6, tomato 14, 16. 

Deciduous trees, sprays for 28. 

"Destructor" for carbon bisulfide 32. 

Dextrin 24. 

Diabrotica, dahlia 8. 

Diatomaceous earth 4. 

Dieback, cherry 6, olive 10, 17. 

Distillates 27, tree 28, heavy 28, 29. 

Dry rot, olive 10, potato 12, 17. 

Ear mold, corn 7. 

Ear worm, corn 7. 

Eel worm 17. 

Emulsion, crude oil 26, kerosene 27, "tree" 
distillate 28, distillate and tobacco ex- 
tract 29. 

Emulsions, heavy distillate 28, commercial 
29. 

European fruit lecanium 26. 

Eutettix tenella 5. 

Exanthema, olive 10, 17. 

Fish oil soap 27, 29, 30. 

Flat headed apple tree borer, apple 2, plum 
12. 



35 



Flea beetle, melon 9, potato 13, strawberry 
14, tomato 14. 

Flies 16. 

Flour, with sulfur 24, in grafting wax 32. 

Flowers of sulfur 23. 

Fly paper, poison 21. 

Formaldehyde, grain 8, potatoes 13, poison- 
ing flies 16. 

Formulas and description of materials 19. 

Freezing, nursery stock 9, sour sap 18. 

French pear 15. 

Frost 16, gummosis 16. 

Fruit mold, bush fruits 5, 

Fumigation 27. 

Fusarium. bean 4. 

Gall fly, chrysanthemum 6. 

Gasolene 18. 

General subjects 15. 

Glue with sulfur 24, in whitewash 31. 

Gophers 18. 

Grafting wax 32. 

Grain 8, nematode 17. 

Granary weevil, corn 7. 

Grasshoppers, alfalfa 1, beet 5, corn 7, 
grain 8, grape 9, potato 13, sorghum 13, 
tomato 14, 16. 

Green manure, citrus 7, crops 10, for physi- 
ological diseases 17. 

Green mold, citrus 7. 

Green rot, apricot 3. 

Gumming, apricot 3. 

Gummosis, cherry 6, citrus 7, 16. 

Hard soap, grape 9, kerosene emulsion 27. 

Hardpan 17. 

Hydrocyanic acid, citrus scales 7, decidu- 
ous nursery stock 10, citrus nursery 
stock 10. 

Japanese pear root, aphis 12, blight 11. 

Jelly end, potato 13. 

Kaolin, cherry slug 6. tobacco dust 31. 

Kerosene 27. 

Kerosene emulsion 27. 

Lampblack 32. 

Lead arsenate, apple 2, basic 3, asparagus 
4, cabbage 5. celery 6, cucumber 8, pear 
12, potato 13, cankerworms 15, 19, acid 
19, phim, prune 12, dry or powdered 24. 

Leaf hopper, grape 9. 

Leaf miner, chrysanthemum 6. 

Leaf spot, alfalfa 1, beet 5, bush fruits 5, 
strawberry 14. 

Lecanium cerasorum 26. 

Lecanium corni 26. 

Lichens 26. 

Lime, cherry 6, grain 8, with lime sulfur 
12, dust for snails 18, hydrated 31. 

Lime sulfur, almond 1, apple 2 and 3, apri- 
cot 2 and 3, bush fruits 5, citrus 7, 
currant and gooseberry 8, peach 11, 
pear scab 11 and 12, rose mildew 13, 
walnut 14, solution 25. 

Linseed oil 32. 

Little leaf, grape 9, peach 11, 17. 

Loganberry 5. 

Lye, concentrated 21, 26. 

Maggots, onion 10. 

Manure, citrus 7, olives 10. 



Mealy bug, citrus 7. 

Melaxuma, walnut 14. 

Mildew, apple 2 and 3, bean 4, cucumber 
8, currant and gooseberry 8, dahlia 8, 
grape 9, onion 10, pea 10, rose 13, sur- 
face 23. 

Miscible oil, apple aphis 2 and 3, apricot 

3, bush fruit 5, cherry 6, olive 10, pear 
12, plum and prune 12, rose 13, 29. 

Mites, almond 1. 

Moss, apple 2, plum 12, 26, 29. 

Mottled leaf, citrus 7, 17. 

Mulch, olives 10, physiological diseases 17. 

Nematode, bean 4, beet 5 and 17, cucumber 

8, melon 9, nursery stock 10, peach 11, 

potato 13, tomato 14, 17. 
Nicotine, sprays on beans 4, cabbage 5, 

celery 6, cherry 6, chrysanthemum 6, 

citrus 7. 
Nicotine sulfate, apple 2 and 3, asparagus 

4, cabbage 5, chrysanthemum 6, dahlia 
8, grape 9, hollyhock 9, onion 10, pea 
10, pear 11 and 12, rose 3, strawberry 
14, walnut 14, aphids 15. 

Nursery stock 11, rosin wash 30. 

Oak fungus 15. 

Oats 8, bluestone 8. 

Obscure diseases, grape 9. 

Oil emulsion, apple 2 and 3, apricot 3, 
bush fruits 5, cabbage 5, cherry 6, citrus 
mealy bug 7, currant and gooseberry 8, 
olive 10, pear 11 and 12, plum and 
prune 12, rose 13, 15, tent caterpillar 
18. 

Oil sprays 3. 

Oils residium 26. 

Oleic acid 24. 

Olive 10, distillate emulsion 28. 

Paris green 21. 

Peach twig borer, almond 1, apricot 4, 
peach 11, plum and prune 12. 

Petroleum, crude 26, distillates 27, distil- 
late 28 and 29. 

Phylloxera 9. 

Physiological diseases 17. 

Plant lice 15. 

Plow sole 17. 

Poison baits 20, substitutes in 21. 

Poison bran mash 16, 20. 

Poisoned sirup 15, fruits 18, grain 32, 
barley 33. 

Pruning cuts 18. 

Quicklime, Bordeaux 22 and 23, grain 23, 
whitewash 31. 

Rabbits 17. 

Red humped caterpillar, almond 1, apple 2, 
apricot 4, cherry 6, pear 11, plum and 
prune 12. 

Red spider, almond 1, bean 4, citrus 7, 
cotton 7, current 8, peach 11, plum and 
prune 12, 23, 26. 

Residium oils 26. 

Rhizoctnnia, bean 4, potato 12. 

Rice meal 21, flour 31. 

Rice weevil 9. 

Root and stem rot, strawberry 14. 

Root aphis, pear 12. 

Root maggot, cabbage 5. 

Rosette 17. 

Rosin wash 30-32. 



36 



Rust, alfalfa 1, almond 1, asparagus 4, 
bean 4, beet 5, bush fruits 5, chrysanthe- 
mum 6, grain 8, hollyhock 9, snapdragon 
13. 

Saccharine 32. 

Saissetia oleae 26. 

Salt, slugs 18, whitewash 31. 

Sal Soda 21. 

San Jose Scale, almond 1, apple 2, 3, peach 
11, plum and prune 12, rose 13. 

Scab, apple 2, 3, pear 11, 12, potato 12. 

Scale, brown apricot 3, currant and goose- 
berry 8, citrus 7, pear 12, plum and 
prune 12, rose 13, black 26, European 
or Italian pear 26, cherry 26. 

Scales, bush fruits 5, citrus 7. 

Scaly bark, citrus 6. 

Seedling root rot, beet 5. 

Shot hole, almond 1, apricot 3. 

Shot hole fungus, almond 1. 

Shot hole borers, apricot 4. 

Shorts 21. 

Slug, cherry 6, pear 11. 

Smut, corn 7, sorghum Sudan grass 13. 

Snails 18. 

Soap, liquid 9, with sulfur 24, fish oil 26, 
29, 30; liquid 26, 27, 28; hard 27. 

Soda ash 21. 

Soda, sulfides of 25, baking 33, bicarbonate 
33. 

Sodium arsenite 21. 

Soft rot, potato 13, sweet potato 14. 

Soluble sulfur 3, 25. 

Sorghum 13. 

Sour sap, almond 1, apricot 3, plum and 
prune 12, 18. 

Squirrels 17, poisoned barley for 33. 

Starch paste 33. 

Steam sterilizing soil 16. 

Stem rot, alfalfa 1, bean 4. 

Stone fruits, arsenicals 19. 

Strawberry 14. 

Strychnine sulfate 18, formula 33. 

Sudan grass 13 

Sulfides of soda 25. 



Sulfur, almond 1, apple 2 and 3, asparagus 
4, bean 4, cherry 6, citrus 7, cotton 7, 
cucumber 8, currant and gooseberry 8, 
grape 9, pea 10, rose 13, sulfur com- 
pounds 23, pastes or wettable sulfurs 
24, commercial paste 24, home made 
wettable 24, "Soluble sulfur" 25. 

Summer blight, tomato 14. 

Sunburn 18. 

Surprise pear 11. 

Symphyla 4. 

Tallow 32. 

Tanglefoot bands 15. 

Tent caterpillars, apple 2, cherry 6, peach 
11, plum and prune 12, 18. 

Teparys (beans) nematode 4. 

Thrips, bean 4, dahlia 8, onion 10, peach 
11, pear 11 and 12, plum and prune 12. 

Tobacco, refuse 2, extract 2, lust for pea 
10, powdered for walnut 15, prepara- 
tions 30, infusions 30, dust 31. 

Tobacco worm, tomato 14. 

Tomato worm, potato 13, tomato 14. 

Tuber moth, potato 13. 

Tuberculosis, olive 10. 

Twig blight, apricot 3. 

Tussock moth, apple 2. 

Walnut 14, black 15. 

"Wasteball" (for carbon bisulfide) 32. 

Water, under high pressure, citrus 7. 

Weed killers 21. 

Weevil, bean 4, pea 10. 

Wettable sulfur, home made 1, 7, 7, 24. 

Whale oil soap, asparagus 4. 

White fly, dahlia 8. 

White wash 14, 17, 18, 31. 

Whiting, Spanish 31. 

Wilt, bean 4, melon 9, potato 12, sweet 
potato 14, tomato 14. 

Winter injury 18. 

Wireworms, beet 5, potato 13. 

Wooly apple aphis 2. 

Wounds, tree 18. 

Yellow necked apple caterpillar, walnut 15. 

Zinc arsenite, formula 20.